Dutch Colonial Period
Beside Jebres Zending Hospital founded in 1912 by the Gereformeerd Delft Church and Zuid Holland ten Noorden churches, there were two other hospitals that performed health care services to the community. The first hospital was: Ziekenzorg, located in Mangkubumen with private name Inslandscziekenhuis der verregniging ziekenzorg. It was not exactly known when the indigenous private hospital was established, but in 1907 this hospital managed by zieken verpleging in Vereeniging voor Nederlandsch-Indie (VZNI) was subsidized by the colonial government. The second hospital, Panti Rogo owned by Keraton Surakarta in the early days was a place to provide health care for relatives of Keraton Surakarta. Since there were frequent epidemic disease experienced by the people, this hospital later received patients from the public. It is estimated that this hospital was established in the reign of Sunan Pakubowono X.
After the transfer of power from Dutch occupation to Japanese troops, all zending hospitals then were occupied by the Japanese. Japanese considered that all Dutch doctors who were top managers in all zending hospitals were actually the Allied spies. During the Japanese occupation, generally there was a decline in people’s health in Indonesia including in Solo compared to the health condition during Dutch colonial period caused by several things: first, a destruction of health infrastructures due to war, second, a functional change of health institutions, third, a decline in public health due to lack of food. Meanwhile, the scarcity of medicine and drugs was caused by the war. Furthermore, Ziekenzorg hospital switched function as interneringcamp (for prisoners) and then moved to Jebres district occupying Ziekenhuis hospital while this hospital moved to the back of the bulding which was then built Prof. dr. Soeharso Rehabilitation Centrum (RC).
Indonesian independence period
After Indonesiaan independence, Ziekenzorg hospital functioned as the Army Hospital until December 19, 1948 and then it was disbanded and abolished. It was also instructed to hand over that public health care to the Indonesian Red Cross (PMI) Surakarta. On February 1st, 1949, this hospital was handed back to the original owners, Inslandscziekenhuis der Vereeniging ziekenzorg, which at that time was renamed the Bale Kusolo Union.Since then this hospital was called Bale Surakarta. Meanwhile, Kasunanan Palace, the owner of Pantirogo hospital, renamed this hospital into Kadipolo hospital. At this time, Jebres hospital and Kadipolo hospital had a difficulty in operational costs so that those hospitals were taken over by the government of Republic of Indonesia for the purpose of revolution. Similarly, in 1948 the management of Kadipolo Hospital was submitted as well to the government of Central Java in a condition that the royal family and clerks who were treated at the hospital received funding relief. Then, there was on a plan to establish a Central Hospital in Surakarta. Eventually, Bale Kusolo was used as a name and identity for a hospital in Surakarta after a discussion and review. This hospital was taken over and managed by the government of Republic of Indonesia in accordance with the Ministerial Decree of Health, dated March 2, 1950, No. 384 / Sekr. / D / 7, commencing January 1, 1950. This decree also stipulated that Bale Surakarta name was replaced with Central Hospital of Surakarta with dr. Toha as its first director. (January 1, 1950, then was decided as the anniversary of Dr.Moewardi Hospital Surakarta). Since then in Surakarta there were three hospitals which all were managed by the government, namely:
- “Center” Hospital located in Surakarta Mangkubumen
- “Solo” Hospital located in Jebres
- “Kadipolo” Hospital located in Kadipolo.
The existence of three government hospitals in Surakarta raised the disagreement among public since the two of them used the name of Surakarta namely Surakarta Central Hospital and Surakarta Hospital. To end the debate and the problem, then on September 15, 1953, there was an idea to change the name of Central Hospital Surakarta became Mangkubumen General Hospital and Surakarta Hospital became Jebres General Hospital. Since 1957 the management the three hospitals was handed over to the Government of Central Java in Semarang. Beside the public health service, the three hospitals also provide education for the medical personnels. Based on the uniformity and efficiency in medical-technical field, administration, education and economization of state money, on March 1, 1960, it was stipulated to integrate the three hospitals into one organizational unit under a director with the name “Surakarta” hospital. To meet the needs of medical and non medical personnels, mutations and adaptation were done based on the task and expertise of the staffs. Since July 1, 1960, Surakarta Hospital consisted of three “hospitals” namely Mangkubumen hospital, Kadipolo hospital, and Jebres hospital. To integrate and improve the public health service to the community, specialization in each functional unit at this hospital was held. The followings are the identification of each hospital:
Kadipolo hospital called Hospital Complex A is spesifically for internal disease service. This hospital is located in Panularan, Laweyan District, Surakarta. Mangkubumen hospital called Hospital Complex B is spesifically for radiology, genital and skin, teeth, eyes, ENT, Chirurgie, neurology services and others. This hospital is located in Mangkubumen, Banjarsari District, Surakarta. Meanwhile, Jebres hospital, located in Jebres, Surakarta, called Hospital Complex C is specifically for obstretric and gynecology, pediatric and family planning. Since August 12, 1973, Jebres hospital was eventually named Dr. Moewardi hospital complex. Meanwhile, Kadipolo hospital (Complex A) in its development, was inefficient and no longer qualify as a hospital so that this hospital with all medical equipments and supplies was later transferred to Mangkubumen hospital the mid of January 1977. Since then this hospital was no longer function as a health care institution.